!!> KINDLE ❄ Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America ❁ Author Garry Wills – Buyphenergan500.us

Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America In A Masterly Work, Garry Wills Shows How Lincoln Reached Back To The Declaration Of Independence To Write The Greatest Speech In The Nation S HistoryThe Power Of Words Has Rarely Been Given A Compelling Demonstration Than In The Gettysburg Address Lincoln Was Asked To Memorialize The Gruesome Battle Instead He Gave The Whole Nation A New Birth Of Freedom In The Space Of A Mere Words His Entire Life And Previous Training And His Deep Political Experience Went Into This, His Revolutionary MasterpieceBy Examining Both The Address And Lincoln In Their Historical Moment And Cultural Frame, Wills Breathes New Life Into Words We Thought We Knew, And Reveals Much About A President So Mythologized But Often Misunderstood Wills Shows How Lincoln Came To Change The World And To Effect An Intellectual Revolution, How His Words Had To And Did Complete The Work Of The Guns, And How Lincoln Wove A Spell That Has Not Yet Been Broken

!!> KINDLE ❄ Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America  ❁ Author Garry Wills – Buyphenergan500.us
  • Paperback
  • 320 pages
  • Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America
  • Garry Wills
  • English
  • 13 October 2017
  • 9780743299633

    10 thoughts on “!!> KINDLE ❄ Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America ❁ Author Garry Wills – Buyphenergan500.us

  1. says:

    With the Pulitzer Prize winning book, Lincoln at Gettysburg The Words That Remade America Garry Wills performs a literary dissection of sorts of a prominent American document, examining both its structure function in an exceedingly formal intricate manner The author looks at Abraham Lincoln s very brief 3 minute statement at Gettysburg in terms of the classic rhetorical formats of Greek Rome But beyond that, he juxtaposes Lincoln s comments with those of the president of Harvard University Edward Everett, who delivered a 2 hour classical address to the same audience As Wills puts it, Everett s speech embodied the calm reflection grave authority of the statesman, as if he were using Greek ideals to explain America to Americans Meanwhile, Lincoln was colloquial as well as brief, seemingly informal while representing a completely new different rhetorical vanguard that was uniquely American in style content.The occasion was of course the aftermath of the Battle of Gettysburg, a turning point in the Civil War because it prevented the Confederacy from establishing a northern front, because of the size of the battle and the also because of the staggering loss of life involved Both Everett Lincoln spoke to honor the countless soldiers on both sides who died at the Battle of Gettysburg, with a new cemetery inaugurated as a final resting place for them In fact, Wills talks about cemetery culture early on, indicating that Lincoln s speech to those assembled was not what they expected to hear from their president.Lincoln came not only to sweeten the air of Gettysburg but to clear the infected atmosphere of American history itself, tainted with official sins inherited guilt He would cleanse the Constitution by altering the document from within, by appeal from its letter to its spirit, subtly changing the recalcitrant stuff of that legal compromise, bringing it to its own indictment and by doing this, he performed one of the most daring of open air sleight of hand ever witnessed The crowd departed with a new thing in it ideological luggage, that new Constitution Lincoln had substituted for the one they brought with them Lincoln had revolutionized the Revolution, giving people a new past to live with that would change their future indefinitely.For as Garry Wills indicates, Lincoln was an agnostic on slavery but absolutely fanatical in his quest to preserve American unity He commented that My paramount object in this struggle is to save the union and not either to save or to destroy slavery Beyond that, he realized that the American constitution was incomplete, espousing an ideal but not yet a reality Thus, our republican robe needed to be repurified and Lincoln saw the Declaration of Independence replacing the gospel as an instrument of spiritual rebirth The president refused to take a stance on the intellectual inferiority of blacks to whites and astutely used one prejudice to counter another, comparing anti slavery to anti monarchism, while affording an almost cult like status to the Declaration of Independence.Curiously, the Gettysburg Address does not mention Gettysburg nor slavery nor even the union In the address, Lincoln was not aiming at Periclean effect as did Prof Everett, for Lincoln was an artist, not just a scholar More importantly, Lincoln s commentary at Gettysburg created a political prose for America, to rank with the vernacular excellence of Mark Twain He sensed that many Americans revered were prejudiced in favor of the Declaration of Independence but many of them were also prejudiced in favor of slavery Lincoln had a long tradition of arguing in ingenious ways, that Americans must, in consistency, give up one or the other prejudice For, the two could not exist in the same mind once their mutual enmity is recognized I found Wills profiling Lincoln s ability as an actor as well as a statesman quite interesting, indicating that he had consistently used differing rhetorical stresses when speaking in downstate Illinois where southern sympathies prevailed than he employed in Chicago other northern precincts of the state And Lincoln sought to speak of the Emancipation Proclamation as a military measure , with Wills quoting Richard Hofstadter to say that the document had all the moral grandeur of a bill of lading, containing no indictment of slavery but simply basing emancipation on military necessity To Lincoln s mind, just as the South could not unilaterally secede, the North could not unilaterally emancipate Also not just in the debates with Sen Douglas, Lincoln was accused of clever evasions key silences Again, the fault lay with the Constitution s imperfect treatment of slavery with language that was considered shameful at best provisional by Lincoln, meaning that slavery was meant to be abolished in due time Thus, acco0rding to Lincoln, the Emancipation Proclamation did not free slaves in the nation at large but only in the theater of active insurrection only as a necessary war measure At Gettysburg, Lincoln not only did not but would not mention the document because he meant to rise above the particular, the local the divisive Also, it is mentioned that until the Civil War, the United States was invariably a plural noun the United States are a free government After Gettysburg, it became singular The United States is a free government Wills stresses thatThe Gettysburg Address has become an authoritative expression of the American spirit as authoritative as the Declaration itself, and perhaps even influential because it determines how we read the Declaration For most Americans now, the Declaration means what Lincoln told us it means, as a way of correcting the Constitution itself without overthrowing it It is this correction of the spirit, this intellectual revolution that is so important By accepting the Gettysburg Address, its concept of a single people dedicated to a proposition, we have been changed Because of it, we live in a different America.At the core of Abraham Lincoln s beliefs was his personal wish that all men everywhere be free, that a House divided cannot endure, permanently half slave half free In Lincoln at Gettysburg Garry Wills indicates that in his use of the vernacular, Lincoln anticipates Mark Twain And citing the brevity of the Gettysburg Address, there is a postwar quote from Mr Twain about the need for brevity in any talk, indicating that few sinners are saved after the first twenty minutes of a sermon President Lincoln spoke a modern language because he was dealing with a scientific age for which phrasings like conceived in liberty and dedicated to a proposition were appropriate His speech is economical, taut interconnected according to Wills and for Lincoln words were weapons, even though he meant them to be weapons of peace in the midst of war In his brief time before the crowd at Gettysburg, he wove a spell that has not, yet, been broken he called up a new nation out of blood trauma Lincoln at Gettysburg The Words That Remade America provides a new frame for a document most Americans come to grapple with at some point in their education It is a book based on a premise, one that is conveyed in the subtitle, coming with ample documentation by Garry Wills, though some may feel that his case is just a tad overstated I do quarrel with some of the terminology, including words such as thanatopsic, autochthony, exordium, anaphora archaize but then what are dictionaries or the Internet for but to be employed and some of the meanings can be guessed at within the specific context Still, this reflection on Lincoln s Gettysburg Address is a rather scholarly work may not be to everyone s taste There are 70 pages of appendices, including the Gettysburg Address itself some variations on what reporters others thought that he had said there

  2. says:

    A REVIEW in 292 Fundamentally, the thing I love about criticism is the ability to read a damn fine book about a damn fine speech and recognize the author of the book wrote a little than a page for every word in the Gettysburg Address If you count appendixes and notes and why wouldn t you when the appendix and notes matter I once teased my wife, during my early wooing stage, that I wanted to write an ode to every hair on her head loads of odes Garry Wills did This book is both academic criticism one chapter is infused with new historicism, one is textual criticism, one is formalist, one is mythological and an ode to Lincoln, Language, and this damn fine speech I could see Garry Wills publishing each chapter in some well funded Civil War journal and eventually weaving each paper together I m not sure how it really happened Wills might just have used the chapters and forms of literary criticism as an organizational framework I am not going to do an exegesis on the book to find out That would be far too meta Anyway, it was a quick and fascinating read and significantly deepened my understanding of Lincoln s motives for the speech while also acting as an Entmythologisierung of the text No Lincoln did not write the text on the back of a napkin while on a train TO Gettysburg Anyway, a must read for those who love history, the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln, or Transcendentalism I m using the German here as a joke, since there were several instances when Wills referenced Everett bringing back the seeds of Transcendentalism and higher criticism from his studies there I m also using it because it is 1.5x as fun as just saying demystification.

  3. says:

    Lincoln was a radical in both senses he broke with tradition by returning to the roots The heart of Wills s book is Lincoln s elevation of the Declaration of Independence as a transcendental text above the earthly and provisional Constitution The Constitution, with its tolerance of slavery, was felt by Lincoln and other transcendentalist political thinkers to require renewal by the Declaration, whose unequivocal proposition of equality for all constitutes the moral center of the American system, the American Idea in timeless and transcendent form Lincoln, like Emerson, was very much concerned with the ebb and flow of spiritual life in and out of established institutions Wills argues that we owe to Lincoln our sense of a Constitution vividly informed and regularly amended by the people s progressive approximation of a transcendent ideal Wills also kicks over a few rocks to show us the judicial conservatives, strict constructionists and Neo Confederate ideologues Americans hostile to America s founding ideals, statistically inevitable dregs and degenerates who to this day begrudge Lincoln for making universal equality integral to the peoples conception of their Constitution American bigots and subjectionists hate that there s a potent liberation ideology built into the system That must be so annoying.The polished pearl of Lincoln s constitutional thinking, the Gettysburg Address is also, of course, a funeral oration Lincoln delivered at the cemetery where 3,512 Union soldiers killed at the battle of Gettysburg are buried, and therefore it has its fascinating social literary situation in nineteenth century oratory, funerary conventions, and the poetry of death The Address s birth death rebirth imagery and rhetorical reliance on antithesis, its brevity, abstraction and dense concision, show Lincoln consciously imitating the Athenian funeral oration, the Epitaphios Logos most memorably delivered by Pericles after the first year of the Peloponnesian War Wills even writes of the Address as having the chaste and graven quality of an Attic frieze I love seeing American usage and institutions springing from the deep humanist culture of its founders and re founders The founders feared direct democracy, and focused their humanism on the Roman Republic nineteenth century Americans preened themselves as heirs of democratic Athens, made Greek Revival the first truly national architectural style, and were, like much of Europe, enthralled by the Greek struggle for independence from the Ottomans Edward Everett the main event of the Gettysburg ceremony, not Lincoln was the voice of fashionably Romantic Hellenism who had made his career speaking at fundraisers for Greek independence and delivering Periclean orations at Revolutionary War battlefields The location of the Athenian Kerameikos outside the city walls, in precincts of contemplative rusticity, near the groves of the Academy, inspired the rural cemetery movement across America, a movement of which the Gettysburg National Cemetery is a famous product others are Boston s Mount Auburn, which drew 30,000 visitors a year and Concord s Sleepy Hollow, whose dedication Emerson delivered The Greek rural cemetery s pantheistic identification of dissolution with initiation, and the Greek view of patriot graves as ideal educative sites for the young caught on with nineteenth century Americans for a variety of reasons 1 The waning of traditional religion before the Transcendentalist cult of nature the theological gloom of the churchyard and the cathedral vault exchanged for picturesque open air sublimity, landscape as church 2.The necrophiliac aspects of Romanticism, and the Romantic association of melancholy with genius, mourning with profundity Lincoln s law partner Herndon His apparent gloom impressed his friends, and created sympathy for him one means of his great success.3 The limnality fetish s ances, spirit photography, dead babies with angel headstones Mary Lincoln conducted s ances in the White House, and later had a spirit photograph taken in which the ghost of her assassinated husband leans over her protectively A selection of morbid Victoriana 1.Mary and Abe s spirit photo2.Assassination spread in Harper s Weekly 3.Lincoln s hearse4.Gettysburg dead1.2 image error

  4. says:

    Just a beautiful piece of work that is also possibly the best book I ve read on Abraham Lincoln For one, Wills does a wonderful job of analyzing Lincoln s influences, from the Transcendentalism of Emerson and Theodore Parker to the oratory of the Greek revival movement to Romanticism, and all of it is so lucidly described and densely packed together that I often had to put the book down to absorb it all or think on it for a moment Wills main point though is that the Gettysburg Address, by making the Declaration of Independence America s most important founding document written four score and seven years before 1863 , and by substituting the aspirational call for equality made in the Declaration for the fuzzy compromises made in the Constitution, helped craft America as an international and on going project for human betterment, rather than a local and limited one, and in so far as this speech reshaped generations of Americans views of their country and its founding, Lincoln truly succeeded in ensuring a new birth of freedom for the nation Overall it s a well wrought description of the political and intellectual life of mid nineteenth century America, one which also shows how a single genius managed to reshape that life going forward.

  5. says:

    A New Birth Of FreedomThe Battle of Gettysburg, a pivotal event in the Civil War, raged from July 1 to July 3, 1863 It was the largest battle ever fought in the Western Hemisphere and ended the Confederacy s second invasion of the North Following the battle, the community of Gettysburg was thick with dead and wounded men The Governor of Pennsylvania authorized the purchase of a cemetery for the reburial of the Union dead The cemetery was dedicated in a ceremony on November 19, 1863 Edward Everett, a distinguished orator of the day, delivered a speech lasting over two hours President Abraham Lincoln also accepted an invitation to deliver short remarks His remarks of 272 became known as the Gettysburg Address They constitute a seminal statement, and restatement of the American vision.Garry Wills study Lincoln at Gettysburg deserves the accolades it has received if for no other reason than it gave many readers the opportunity to read and think about the Gettysburg Address This is a speech that is dulled and lost in childhood It needs to be approached and rethought as an adult to get an understanding of the depth of Lincoln s message.Wills sees the Gettysburg Address as recasting and remaking the American democratic experience The speech expressly brings the hearer and reader back to the Declaration of Independence with its self evident truth that All men are created equal This truth, Lincoln turns into a proposition on which our country was founded The Constitution, adopted thirteen years after the Declaration, countenances slavery and includes no language about human equality In his spare prose, Lincoln says little directly about the nature of equality Wills discusses the address and masterfully places it in the context of Lincoln s earlier speeches to help the reader understand the development of Lincoln s ideas on slavery, the antithesis of human equality.The Gettysburg Address also sounded the theme of the United States as a single undivided nation rather than a union or confederation of States Wills shows how this theme too derives from the Declaration, when the people of the colonies rose up in unity to declare their Independence from Britain Wills also reminds the reader of the sources of the idea of Nationhood in American history He alludes to the Federalism of Chief Justice John Marshall and Justice Joseph Story In particular, Wills discusses the Webster Hayne debates Lincoln greatly admired Webster as well as his fellow Whig, Henry Clay Webster uttered the famous line Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable, which resonates through the Gettysburg Address.Wills tries to show the influence on Lincoln s thought on the transcendentalism of Emerson and of Theodore Parker I thought this one of the challenging sections of the book While the Declaration was born in the skepticism of British empiricism and of Deism, transcendentalism emphasized the ideal The Declaration and the Address, and the American mission, Lincoln transformed into ideal to be struggled for and realized by the living to commemorate the sacrifice of those who gave their lives to attain it.The book also includes an excellent treatment of rhetoric and speech, tracing Lincoln s address back to Thucydides and Georgias and ending with the observation that it marked the beginning of modern American prose.Wills book encourages the reader to think about the Gettysburg Address and the great nature of the American political experiment Original review edited on Thanksgiving Day, November 23, 2017.Robin Friedman

  6. says:

    An interesting and scholarly book on Lincoln and his speech at Gettysburg Great information, but a bit dry at times I appreciate this book s importance to USA History and can see why it won a Pulitzer.

  7. says:

    This year my Reading Challenge is to re read 10 books to see how they hold up to my memory There is quite a bit in this book that I forgot over 15 years.If you asked me last week, I d have told you it was about the use of rhetorical devices and how this style of oratory harkens back to the Greek tradition I would not have remembered nor told you it shows how Lincoln recast the meaning of the war and fixed the Declaration of Independence as subordinate to Constitution as noted in the title nor would I have remembered how Wills shows the influence of the transcendentalists on Lincoln s thinking nor would I have remembered much about the choice of venue.Wills defines the founding generation s preference for Roman a republic, fearful of the masses imagery to the late nineteenth century s preference for Greek a democracy with suffrage imagery He shows the development of Lincoln s mood and thought through previous speeches and bits of Lincoln s poetry and a discussion of the later second Inaugural Address There is quite a bit on the 19th century American experience of death using the word Victorian only as an adjective for authors and the cemetery movement.I remembered that by not naming a person, the battlefield being dedicated or the battle fought there, the North or the South or any place, or even the Declaration of Independence which the oratory is about, he makes the piece timeless By using nouns instead of referent pronouns he creates stirring images By using of balance he makes it poetic I did not remember how the war was recast in that the great task before us is not emancipation, but the perpetuation of self government.It s funny how the memory works There are a few poems that Lincoln wrote and I did not remember any of them Most of them are forgettable, but the poem on pp 92 93 where Lincoln lays out his beliefs on race should not have been.The contrast with oratory of its day is shown in the Appendix III in the speech delivered that same day by Pennsylvania Governor Everett Also in Appendix III is an example of the Greek funeral oratory from which the style is derived.Were I to have rated this book last week, I d have given it 5 stars While it is an important book and Wills brings a lot together, today I see it as a 4 star book While the book is short and it is not pithy The pieces on psychobiography and the section on the transcendental influence ramble.

  8. says:

    This book contains so much interesting information about Lincoln and his speeches, but I can t say I really enjoyed reading it The style wasn t my favorite, and I wish there had been about the Gettysburg Address It wasn t quite what I expected and I thought some parts seemed a little out of place and unnecessary in a book that s purportedly about a single speech.

  9. says:

    My Overall Impressions Masterful.Cognitive.Coherent.Well Organized.Well Documented.Some of the Rhetorical Basics are covered here Wills describes the delivery of the Gettysburg Address in terms ofThe Communication Triangle of Speaker, Message, Listener Context ForumPresentationBeing a Funerary Memorial Service, Lincoln also uses the epainesis of the heroic death Epainesis was used in the tradition of Pericles funerary oration given in honor of heroes as recorded in History of the Peloponnesian War Will explains how epainesis is traditionally used and how Lincoln used it in a modern setting at the first modern US American war.Lincoln mixed Transcendentalism, 19th century culture of death proto 20th century Gothicism his social political theory, deliberative rhetoric with funerary oration.The appendices are reference materials, not supplemental information, necessary to fully grasping all that Wills has written about in his book.The argument that Wills presents is rather short, 171 pages Yet the information is dense and requires the support of 83 Pages of appendices.The Good News This text is accessible to all who have a basic understanding of rhetoric, the Civil War, and Transcendentalism Accessible, yes Easy, no I plan to return to this book again next year And perhaps the year after that as there are so many ideas and details to be mined.

  10. says:

    Why does it take Garry Wills 317 pages to explain Lincoln s 272 words delivered at Gettysburg Because Lincoln s address was that magisterial and Wills scholarship that magnificent Wills, 84 at this writing and Professor Emeritus at Northwestern University, wrote Lincoln At Gettysburg in 1992 While not dueling for oratory greatness, Lincoln s 272 words eclipse the famed oratory giant Edward Everett, the principal speaker at the dedication whose 13,000 words took two hours to deliver Why Wills explores the context and the text of Lincoln s famed address, but than that, the forces that shaped his communication in general and this speech in particular Readers are treated to the influences of Greek Revival, the Culture of Death of that day, the Transcendentalism of Theodore Parker, and the theory and oratory power of Daniel Webster The author also demonstrates Lincoln s mastery of thought and style For Lincoln, the Civil War was about preserving the Union than freeing slaves He used the moment to connect people to the Declaration and Constitution a single people dedicated to a proposition and it was unity around that proposition that pushed the issue of slavery in our country toward obsolescence As to style, Wills shows us that Lincoln rendered obsolete the communication methods of his day, a mere thirty minutes after Everett spoke The author s treatment of the power of words, along with the insights from Hugh Blair, Mark Twain, and John Hay is worth the price of the book.Wills won the Pulitzer Prize for Lincoln At Gettysburg and it is not hard to understand why This is not light reading, but it is fascinating and so insightful Five reasons to read 1 Scholarship Put on your deep diving gear Wills plumbs the depths of this speech, taking us down through cold waters of history to the works of Pericles and Thucydides.2 Communication Lincoln At Gettysburg is essential reading for anyone who wants to improve their communication It is enlightening, educating, and fascinating.3 Context Will deftly relays the need for artful words to sweeten the poisoned air of Gettysburg Each side claimed fifty thousand dead, wounded, and missing Residents were forced to plant around bodies in the fields and gardens Contractors were bidding to bury the bodies of soldiers, a work that intern 100 bodies a day Will takes the speech out of our classrooms and puts us at Gettysburg.4 Myth explosion For years I have believed the myths that Will quickly dispels 1 The Gettysburg Address was composed on the fly 2 That Lincoln was not pleased with the speech, e.g purportedly saying, That speech won t scour Not so.5 The Tycoon Wills gives us glimpses of Lincoln through the eyes of his 25 year old secretary, John Hay who would later serve as Secretary of State to two Presidents Hay referred to Lincoln as The Tycoon These interactions are interesting and particularly helpful in examining the power of Lincoln s communication.

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